Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Social Factors That Affect The Experiences Of Children

A traditional family is defined by the marriage of a man, woman, and/ or a child. Today, less than half of the children in this nation live in such a family. Families have become more complex and less â€Å"traditional† (Livington, 2014). According to Livington (2014), Americans are delaying marriage or avoiding it altogether. This is largely due to the factor that women are attaining careers and not getting married and having children. Another factor that contributes to this movement away from the traditional family, is the fact that with some states not allowing marriage between two people of the same sex, many couples do not find the necessity to marry if they are not going to adopt or have children. In this paper, I will describe some of†¦show more content†¦Some of the social factors affecting the Latino children population include family and household demographics, language patterns, educational level challenges, poverty and unemployment rates, and health and in surance rates. Latino Children Origin and Language Patterns Nearly 70 percent of Latino children are of Mexican origin. The next largest origin groups include Puerto Ricans (1.6 million), Salvadorans (587,000), Dominicans (448,000), Cubans (394,000), Guatemalans (363,000) and Colombians (236,000) (Saenz, 2014). Although Latino children come from a vast array of countries, more than 90 percent are born in the United States or born abroad to U.S. citizens. As a result of this, the language patterns of Latino children have strong ties to their ancestral roots. About three-fifths of Latino children are bilingual. They speak Spanish at home but are also fluent in English. This is an extremely important factor for the Latino community. Public schools are effectively teaching Latino children to speak English but at home they converse in Spanish with their families. Family Households Poverty and Unemployment Rates The majority of Latino children (54 percent) live in a married household. The next quarter live in households headed by a single female and about one sixth live with a grandparent or a single father (Saenz 2014). In some instances, some

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay on 1984 vs. Harrison Bergeron - 855 Words

Vonnegut Jr.s Harrison Bergeron and Orwells 1984 are based on the concept of negative utopia. The governments in both these novels control their masses using harsh methods. The government in 1984 uses brainwashing, doublethink, mutability of the past and vaporization to control its masses. The government in Harrison Bergeron uses physical and mental handicaps to control its masses and in the effort to make everyone equal. Both the governments have a tight control on its people but the government in 1984 has a stronger and more affective control over its masses than the government in Harrison Bergeron. The government in 1984 completely restricts the mere freedom of thought. Anyone who thinks anything that the government finds†¦show more content†¦They turn into puppets that can be easily controlled and manipulated by the Party, to the extent that they can be made to believe in two contradicting ideas at once. This is what the Party refers to as doublethink. In fact, the people themselves believe that thoughtcrime is a dreadful thing, (Page 233) and that they should be punished for it as suited. The fear that has subconsciously settled in the minds of the people minimizes the chances of rebellion, makes it easier for the Party to stay in power, and furthermore results in a very tight control over the population. On the other hand, in Diana Moon Glamperss government, all people with higher than average intelligence are required to wear a little mental handicap radio in one of their ears at all times. This handicap sends out a sharp noise every 20 seconds so that people dont take unfair advantage of their brains. (Vonegut). It interrupts the thinking process of the individual by momentarily stunning them, after which the individual forgets about what he/ she was thinking. This does not mean that free thought is restricted. It is not! People can think about anything at any moment of time and wont be convicted as guilty for it. They are less of puppets and more of individuals. However, taking off the mental handicap time at any given point is punishable. The punishment is not as bad as that issued by the Party for thoughtcrime. Also, the government would never know if someone took off their

Identity Theft Free Essays

Identity theft is not only stealing of credit card information but through online sources as well. Identity Theft has become a major issue since technology has become more popular throughout the world. Since consumers are co-dependent for technology it is an easier solution to fast sufficient services and each time we use the internet we input data that takes our name, address, even private accounts. We will write a custom essay sample on Identity Theft or any similar topic only for you Order Now For example, if you get an email that says you won a gift card to a certain store they want your full information to supposedly send you the card in the mail. Frauds will even call you from private numbers stating they are from debt collecting agency acting for bank account and social security information. Common ways Identity Theft that may occur are Defrauding businesses, stealing records from their employer, hacking into business or organization’s computers Steve Wisman stated this quote out of his book, The Truth about Identity Theft, â€Å"can be done through high tech, low tech, or no tech† (Steve, 2010). Credit card fraud scheme is when you use your card to shop online, giving your card, name, and address in order to make a purchase, if you are not careful your information can be monitored by fraudsters using a program so they can record the details entered. After gathering your information they have access to make transactions for purchasing items. There are also credit card machine to duplicate your original credit card. * 9 out of 10 fraudsters get away with your information. 70% of companies surveyed agreed that internet is the most risky way to the market, due to the fact that 52% of companies agree that internet fraud is a problem within their company and 55% will admits that it’s a huge concern in their company. * 48% claims it takes up to a month before anybody is aware of a fraud. * Rarely companies are protected, that’s why only 15%of companies have automated systems in place to detect fraud. Master fraudsters are more confident in their ability that they spend little or no time to cover up their tracks * 58% of those surveyed believe that online fraud is preventing successful transactions on the internet. An example of a successful fraud is Amar Singh and his wife Neha Punjani-Singh. Both Amar and Neha are in their 30’s and pleaded guilty to identity theft and enterprise corruption charges involving their roles in a $13 million scam. The two were one of the few people who were arrested for taking part in an operation that netted the millions between July and September of 2011. Court documents were posted by wired magazine. Singh was one of four bosses of the criminal enterprise. They received information about unknown people from many countries. Frauds used a skimming device to swipe consumer credit card information at retail stores and illegal identification-gathering websites. According to the New York Post, the judge told Singh that he was a huge criminal and a rip-off artist (CHRISTINA, 2012). After that statement Singh, who faced up to 250 years in prison, was only sentenced to 5 1/3 to 10 2/3 years in prison for the charges. Singh took the plea agreement to spare his wife, Neha Punjani-Singh jail time and dodged about 250 years in prison if he went to trial. As for his wife, Neha Punjani-Singh pleaded guilty to petty larceny and was dismissed with a conditional discharge sentence. How to cite Identity Theft, Papers Identity Theft Free Essays string(74) " in the United States that controls consumer’s credit card information\." Identity theft is a serious problem that has been happening for a very long period of time. In America there are over 9 million victims of identity theft that takes place every year. Research shows Nine out of ten American homeowners have concerns about becoming victims of identity theft. We will write a custom essay sample on Identity Theft or any similar topic only for you Order Now This is the most rapid growing type of fraud in the country, yet virtually two-thirds are hesitant whether their insurance policy is able to protect them financially if this crime were to occur. A vast proportion of 83 percent believe the government should seize action to help prevent identity theft. WWW. SSA. GOV, 2009) [pic] According to Federal Trade Commission statistics, identity theft has reached a fraction of 72 percent between 2001 and 2002, from 220,000 occurrences to 380,000. Even though 97 percent of the homeowners surveyed had heard of identity theft, and practically one in four knows someone who has been a victim, 61 percent are uncertain whether their homeowner’s insurance policy would compensate them for expenses required in recuperating after this fraud has been convicted. Only 11 percent of the homeowners surveyed feel as though their policy protects them fully. With the likelihood of identity theft increasing each year, these survey results suggest that more than 60 million homeowners could be at financial risk if they were to fall victim to this type of fraud, despite that increasing trend, only a small percentage of policies actually provide coverage for expenses incurred in recovering from identity theft. † States Michelle Kenney, an underwriting executive who specializes in high-end policies (WWW. SSA. GOV, 2009). Identity theft comes in many forms. One type of identity theft is necrolarcency the unauthorized use of checking accounts or bogus credit cards. This is when someone has the unauthorized use of your name, social security number, or credit card number. Another type of identity theft is the unauthorized use of your social security number, birth certificate, and passport. Government document fraud may get a drivers license in your name with their picture, or use your social security number to receive government benefits. They can also file a fraudulent tax return with your personal information (Identity theft: what to do if it happens to you, 1996). Other things identity thefts are capable of are using your social security number to get a job, for medical care and services, or put your personal information down when they get arrested and if they don’t show up to the court date there will be a warrant out for your arrest issued in your name. These thieves misrepresent themselves as the victim. The theft may use your name and other personal information for many different reasons such as; acquire a credit card, establish a telephone account, and even rent an apartment. You may not even be aware this is taking place until you review your credit report and notice charges that you never had made, or a debit collector contacts you (identity theft checklist). In that case you always should file a police report right away to evaluate the problem before things get worse. Identity thieves can also establish utilities such as telephone service, electricity, or cable services in someone else’s name avoiding monthly payments. They can also send the bills to another address and run up your charges so you may never receive your bill to make your payments, and then your credit history will be destroyed. Skilled identity thefts have developed many easy ways to steal information over time. Some ways are dumpster diving, which is when they rummage through another person’s trash searching for bills and other forms of identification (Identity theft: what to do if it happens to you, 1996). Also, there is skimming which is when they take your card information and merchants record your information while processing your card. Thieves will attach a data storage device to an ATM machine or card reader at a retail checkout that will steal important credit card information and debit credit card numbers. Another type of identity theft is phishing. Thieves pretend to be a financial institution and send spam pop-ups to your computer to persuade consumers to reveal themselves. Identity thieves are also using technology to steal your identity. For example, some thieves plant crime ware directly onto your personal computer to steal your credentials. This happens on corporate computers and can compromise computer security (identity theft checklist). Another growing problem that exists online is pharming crime ware that misdirects users to fraudulent sites or servers. They run up charges on your existing account by opening a wireless phone account in your name. Also they can use your name to receive utility services such as cable TV, heating, and electricity. Bank and finance fraud is when they use your name or account number to create counterfeit checks with a large amount of money that can leave you far in debt. Also they can open a banking account and write out bad checks to people in your name. They could also drain your account by making unauthorized use of credit cards and make electronic withdrawals. They may even take out an entire loan (WWW. SSA. GOV, 2009). There are some laws that protect consumers from identity theft. Current legislation such as CHECK 21 tries to prevent thieves from stealing your bank account information. For example, previously bank customers would receive their checks in the mail with their monthly summary statement making it easier for thieves to have access to sensitive information. CHECK 21 allows receivers to receive digital versions of checks instead of paper copies making it more difficult for thieves to access account information (Identity theft: what to do if it happens to you, 1996). The fair credit reporting act is also a very good way of protection. This is a federal law in the United States that controls consumer’s credit card information. You read "Identity Theft" in category "Papers" Just as the fair debt collection practices act, it gives the rights of consumer credit in the United States. This act is entitled amend the Federal Deposit Insurance Act to oblige insured banks to preserve certain records, to require that certain transactions in United States currency be reported to the Department of the Treasury (identity theft checklist). Fair debt collection practices act provides rights to consumers and limits debt collector’s abilities. Some debt collectors harass people by calling them constantly at inconvenient hours of the morning or night. In this case you are able to file a lawsuit to protect your rights. Many collection agencies offer consolidation programs so consumers can pay off their debt and establish good credit. There are also courses available to teach people money management and responsibilities (About identity theft). The electronic transfer act is another great way to keep your personal identity safe. This act was established to give you rights  and responsibility of  consumers  and all the contributors in electronic funds transfer  actions. The electronic transfer act is not particularly very flawless. This system occasionally makes errors so you will need to review the transactions to be carful. There are procedures you must follow if there are errors noticed. You must contact a financial institution within thirty days and explain your predicament so they can begin to investigate and solve your problem (identity theft checklist). The annual free credit report act provides consumers with a free credit report once a year from the three national credit reporting agencies. Some companies require payments for your credit report and should not have to. Some services proclaim they are free, and then bill you for services you must cancel. The information in your report is used to evaluate your submission for credit, insurance, employment, and renting a home. Also, you should always make sure your reports are up to date by seeing if you recognize the information (About identity theft). Credit bureaus present consumer credit information from various sources such as bill paying borrowing behavior. This gives lenders a better feel of trust for your ability to pay back loans and influences your interest rate. Experian is credit bureaus that provide information to consumers to help manage financial decisions. Also there is Equifax which gives businesses and consumers information they can trust. TransUnion gives consumers and business advantages to manage your decisions. Risk-based pricing will affect your Interest rate by risking amounts of borrowed money and proving you can pay them off. People with poor credit such as bankruptcies will pay a higher annual interest rate than those who have good credit (Identity theft- what you need to know to protect yourself). Fraud is a huge problem in the United States for various reasons. It has caused many problems for people such as loss of life, money, injuries, and more serious things. Fraud is misrepresentation with intent to deceive. This is when someone or a company advertises something when they are well aware that it is not capable of what they have guaranteed (Identity theft: what to do if it happens to you, 1996). Fraud investigators determine if fraud has occurred and identifies confirmation. Telemarketing fraud is one of the most common types. When you give personal or financial information to unknown callers or money to people you do not know personally, you increase your likelihood of becoming a victim of telemarketing  fraud. Once you pay money to a fraud over the phone, it is difficult to get your money back, but here are many ways to avoid telemarketing fraud. You must always be alert when it comes to purchasing over the telephone (Fedral trade commission). Craigslist is a free online classified ad service that people can use for various reasons. It is used to buy, sell, trade, job, and much more. Identity theft on craigslist is easy to identify, for example if someone asks for a payment ahead of time or asks for personal information without proof of your purchase. You should always be aware of keeping your personal information anonymous and check the other person’s credentials. Craigslist is a great tool if used carefully, or you could be put in a bad situation (About identity theft). Microsoft provides computer security, digital privacy, and online safety to its consumers. There are programs to stop phishing and gives you tip’s on how protect your personal information. It offers antivirus and spyware programs, PC safety scams, and malicious software removal tools. Former United States senator Hillary Clinton states that well over 400,000 children are victims of identity theft. The percentage of children victims have rapidly grown to be a proportion of 78 percent. A seven year old with a clean credit history had their social security number stolen by a theft that purchased a $40,000 houseboat. Clinton’s reaction to this dilemma was to develop Privacy Rights and Oversight for Electronic and Commercial Transaction act, and make sure that all companies giving access to credit confirm the age of the applicant (About identity theft). Senator Charles Schumer has embarked on a domestic investigation into account fraud which had led to substantial identity theft. Westlaw, an information company, allowed clients to search for individual social security number. As a result, Schumer has put control on access for those who can find information on Westlaw’s security systems. Schumer states, â€Å"While ChoicePoint’s recent breach of security has been one of the biggest cases of ID theft in the country, ID theft is popping up everyday at other companies who have similarly lacked the proper security to guard people’s personal information. The new rise in identity theft cases nationwide is approaching epidemic proportions and Congress must act quickly to bolster privacy protections. (Identity theft- what you need to know to protect yourself). Victims of identity theft in some instances, credit reports could contain negative information that may deny you loans for education. This will enable you to attend the college you desire due to money issues as well as housing and vehicles. Also you may be limited with few job opportunities. In rare cases you could even be arrested for a crime you did not even commit. Once thieves have stolen your identity they can do a lot of damage with your personal information such as credit card frauds. They can change a very good credit history to an extremely awful one that would take a lot of time to make things back to normal. All the payments would get sent to your card and you’d have to pay all the bills before you notice what is happeningif you figure out your identity has been stolen, or are even suspicious that your credit reports have any additional unknown charges you should contact the police immediately before problems get worse. You should also notify creditors to restore your good name as soon as you can. A police report contains important information such as specific details for an identity theft report. This can permanently block fraudulent information that leads to identity theft and hides personal information from appearing on your credit report and make sure that these debts do not turn back up on these credit reports. You may be able to work with the company to resolve the dispute. Filing a report will let you take advantage to the protection you are entitled to (identity theft checklist). The United States has attempted a variety of different ways to improve the prevention of Identity Theft. There has been many times where there has been success found in the progress. One case, the Colorado House of Representatives has made changes to discontinue the thief from getting information and using it to obtain employment or preserve employment. Another way Identity theft has improved its prevention is the National Tax Payer Advocate alleged the International Revenue Service to improve protection to assist victims of identity theft. The IRS does not contain advocate action and this is the reason payers are required by law to give personal information. National Society of Accountance agreed the risk of identity theft is a substantial distress. Many recommendations were persecuted to protect tax payers (Identity theft: what to do if it happens to you, 1996). Identity theft is a very serious problem the United States has been facing for a very long time. In some cases, if you notice and report the problem early before it gets bad, you can take care of it much easier. In other cases where victims have had hundreds of dollars taken from them are in a much worse situation. They have to try and repair the damages that have happened to their credit records over a long period of time. The long term effects of identity theft are always awful and don’t end well. It lingers for a long time and your life could never be the same. You must always be aware of keeping your personal information private for no one to see or you will have very harsh consequences. BIBLIOGRAPHY â€Å"Identity Theft: What to Do If It Happens to You | Privacy Rights Clearinghouse. † Privacy Rights Clearinghouse | Empowering Consumers. Protecting Privacy. Web. 25 May 2011. â€Å"Identity Theft And Your Social Security Number. † The United States Social Security Administration. Web. 25 May 2011. http://www. ssa. gov/pubs/10064. html. â€Å"FTC Consumer Information – ID Theft, Privacy, Security: Identity Theft. † Federal Trade Commission. Web. 25 May 2011. â€Å"About Identity Theft – Deter. Detect. Defend. Avoid ID Theft. † Federal Trade C ommission. Web. 25 May 2011. . â€Å"What You Need to Know to Protect Yourself from Identity Theft. † Identity Theft – What You Need to Know to Protect Yourself from Identity Theft. Web. 25 May 2011. . How to cite Identity Theft, Papers Identity Theft Free Essays string(211) " their credit reports so that damages incurred during this period do not misrepresent the consumers own credit report since they were in fact victims of a crime and not actively ruining their own credit status\." Identity theft is a growing problem and costs American consumers billions of dollars and countless hours each year.   The following paper will discuss the issue of identity theft, the definition of the problem and it will survey five people about personal awareness of identity theft. The largest transaction a family, or individual will make is when they purchase a home. We will write a custom essay sample on Identity Theft or any similar topic only for you Order Now    The first step in buying a home is to make sure that the family and/or the individual understand the risks of identity theft and how serious it can become.   The Federal trade commission receives 15,000 to 20,000 consumer complaints every week.   Identity theft can ruin a person’s credit and derail that person’s real estate dreams. Related reading: Snatch Theft Essay In fact, many consumers first learn they are victims of identity theft when they are in the process of renting or buying a home.   This means that a person’s or family’s real estate dreams can be dashed in a moment because they were unknowingly a victim of identity theft.   There are different avenues of choice a person can make in deterring identity theft and ensuring that one does not become a victim of such a crime. Because the home buying process involves sharing a certain amount of personal information with third parties, home buyers should be careful when sharing financial or other personal information, whether in person, on the phone, or over the Internet.   Many consumers are not aware that providing personal information online is in effect authorizing the owners of that site to sell the consumer’s information to third parties.   Therefore a person should only use trusted sites with security and/or privacy. Recently NAR and the Federal Trade Commission formed a partnership to combat identity theft.   The program, â€Å"Deter, Detect and Defend† aims to educate consumers, particularly homebuyers, about the devastating effects of identity theft and help them protect themselves against that crime. In order to deter identity thieves, the FTC and NAR recommend that consumers shred financial documents and paperwork with personal information before discarding.   This is because often times identity theft may occur when a criminal goes through a person’s trash and finds credit card acceptance letters and thus, they get the card under the person’s name all because the document was not discarded of properly or fully. Another deterrent that a person may do in order to protect their identity is to protect their social security number.   A person should only give out their social security number if absolutely necessary or ask to use another identifier.   If a person on a phone asks for this number they could be writing it down to use for their own benefit; such situations could be billing statements and questions with a person’s credit card company or any other billing service that wants a person to identify themselves with their social security number.   An alternative to using one’s own social security number is to use one’s account number instead. Another deterrent to identity theft is to not give out personal information on the phone by mail of the Internet unless the person knows with whom they speaking or dealing with.   Many people with cell phones often times conduct business while they are shopping or while they are out in public.   This is a very poor in judgment move to make because being in public and not aware of one’s own surroundings is a vulnerable place to be conducting business.   Many people forget in what surroundings they are speaking on their telephone and any eavesdropper can find out a person’s address, phone number, family members, etc. Another item on a list of deterrents is to make sure no one in public sees a credit card.   While standing in line at the checkout, camera phones have made it simpler and easier to be an identity thief; this is true because anyone who is behind someone in line using their credit card can simply take a picture of that card and have the account number for their personal use.   Therefore it is behooving to be constantly aware of one’s surrounding, who is the next person in line and to make sure the account number of a credit card while in use remains private. Thus, it becomes increasingly important to be able to detect suspicious behavior and activity everywhere.   A consumer should then know a few things so that the previous situations do not occur.   A consumer should routinely monitor financial accounts and billing statements.   If unusual activity appears on a person’s account it should be reported to the credit card or billing company immediately so that if the consumer is a victim of identity theft the card will be reported as such and the next time the thief uses the card there will exist a paper trail by which the police can find them. Another way in which a consumer can ensure their own protection is to be alert to signs that require immediate attention, such as bills that do not arrive as expected; unexpected credit cards or account statements; denials of credit for no apparent reason; and call or letters about purchases the consumer did not make.  Ã‚  Ã‚   Each of these items is a definite sign of identity theft.   A smart consumer is cautious about these different signs and ensures of their own accord that such false accounts are not accomplished by shredding credit card offers in the mail, and by keeping proper and timely track of their own purchases. Another way in which a consumer can safeguard against identity theft is to purchase monthly insurance from the credit card company that allows the consumer to be fully protected should identity theft occur.   Such a program is set up so that when faulty account balances are detected the consumer does not have to pay for the charges. If a consumer thinks that identity theft has occurred against them then they should place a ‘fraud alert’ on their credit reports so that damages incurred during this period do not misrepresent the consumers own credit report since they were in fact victims of a crime and not actively ruining their own credit status. You read "Identity Theft" in category "Essay examples" A consumer who has been the victim of identity theft should quickly close accounts that have been tampered with or established fraudulently.   This tells the credit companies that such accounts were initiated by the consumer since their action in repelling the accounts was swiftly taken. Consumers should also file a police report immediately once they are certain that they have been exposed to identity theft.   Filling such a report lets the police do their jobs in ensuring that such a crime does not persist and that the person or persons responsible for this crime are appropriately punished and do not go back out into the business world thinking that they can easily repeat their actions without negative results.   In order identity thieves to be put in jail the initial step is to file a police report. Another action that a consumer can accomplish if they have been the victim of an identity theft is to file a report of the theft to the Federal Trade Commission.   This further takes responsibility of the theft off of the shoulders of the consumer. There of course ways in which identity fraud has been staunched by different companies.   One way has been the introduction of virtual credit cards.   This service is given by MBNA and is called ShopSafe.   This service is found through MBNA’s Net Access service for paying bills online.   This means that a consumer can safely shop through their own browser or they can shop with a   free down load desktop software.   The virtual card has the option of the consumer choosing the duration of the card’s active status, and the limit on the card as well. (Arar, 2006, 47). Another option available for consumers is to pay by e-pay online.   This option is available at different online merchants which dictates that the consumer pays electronically (this is typically used in billing statements).   The site that has been utilized the most is PayPal.   Everything on PayPal is done safely, and electronically.   PayPal does not trade consumer information and does not allow the consumer’s   bank information to be directly seen by The research done with PC World, 2006, initiates consumer awareness about how to appropriately use a computer that ensures personal account information is not accessible by anyone else besides the consumer.   In their section entitles Privacy Watch; How to Secure Files on Your Hard Drive, the article discusses how to files safeguarded.   A consumer’s computer should be appropriately safeguarded by using encryption software, Files are encrypted only while on the hard drive.   If you send an e-mail attachment to someone from your encrypted hard drive, the software automatically decrypts the attachment before it leaves the PC, and the recipient receives a normal unscrambled message.   Full disk encryption tools used to have one major drawback: They slowed PCs considerably.   But as processor power has gone up, software makers have optimized their products so effectively that you can barely tell the encryption is happening.   I surfed the Web, checked and sent e-mail, and even played some graphically intensive games on the encrypted laptop without encountering a perceptible performance hit from the encryption software, which quietly went about its business in the background. 48. The overall focus of PC World’s article involved being a conscious consumer and careful shopper. David M. Lynch’s article Securing Against Insider Attacks (2006) also gives advice and warning signals of identity theft in regards to IT security.   One such maxim listed is that of trusting the people who make up established relationships.   This theory states that anyone within a person’s ‘tribe’ is immediately trustworthy but an outside must be viewed with precaution, as Lynch states, â€Å"Since the very first IT survey on cyber attacks, one fact has remained almost constant: a greater percentage of attacks come form the inside (from ‘trusted’ folks)—60 to 70 percent—than from the outside (the ‘untrusted’ folks). Or, to put it another way, roughly twice the number of attacks come from the inside vs. the outside.† (40).   This places a new perception on identity theft since the person who is the thieve is typically thought of as being a stranger, but in the above statement, Lynch points out that most of the time the person doing the thieving is someone the consumer personally knows. Lynch goes on to state that identity theft has become such a staple crime is because of the broadening scope of business which has subsequently made the world a smaller place.   Almost all business, large and small have processing orders all over the world   This ensures that an electronic identity is abundant in the business world.   This electronic identity when paired with repositories of personal information is the number one reason why identity theft has grown so widely (while the market grew in a global scale so did the crime of identity theft). Lynch’s article highlights different banks and organizations that themselves have been victims of identity theft, Data broker Acziom Corp. experienced identity theft by an insider that cost it $5.8 million, including employees’ time and travel expenses, security audits, and encryption software†¦ChoicePoint said in February that thieves using stolen identities had created 50 dummy businesses that pulled data including names, addresses, and Social Security numbers on as many as 145,000 people.   As a result, its stock dropped from $48 a share the day before the announcement to around $39. In May 2005, Wachovia corp. and Bank of America Corp.     notified more than 100,000 customers that their financial records had been stolen by bank employees and sold to collection agencies. At the time of writing, investigators are still looking into the case, which may involve the unauthorized sale of data on nearly 700,000 customers of various banks. In the same month, CardSystems Solutions Inc. confirmed it suffered a ‘security incident’ in which an ‘unauthorized individual’ infiltrated the computer network and may have stolen up to 40 million credit card numbers.   40 Each of these descriptions bears witness to the growing actions of identity theft not only toward consumers, or individuals, but also to large corporations and their customers. Although identity theft is a growing concern it remains the act of federal laws but even more so of state laws that deter such a crime.   New legislation has been put into place in different states such as North Dakota and California that ‘forces companies to reveal unauthorized access to information that is commonly found in phone books’ (41).   In California a more strict state law states that civil lawsuits to further deter identity thieves and punish existing thieves.   There is also a law in effect for Arkansas, Georgia, Montana, North Dakota, and Washington that would require that state agencies and businesses inform residents if their Social Security numbers are   disclosed (41). Lynch describes the change of the face of identity theft and the laws enacted to prevent such a crime.   The above paragraph mentions the initiative of states and governors to ensure that identity theft carries a harsh penalty but there is a contrasting point highlighted by Lynch that states   that this state-by-state approach is very slow and seemingly impossible, â€Å"†¦for any organization that does business in multiple states to set up different levels of security and access on a stat-by state basis† (41).   This means that companies will be forced quickly to set their own policies with the guidelines of the state in mind. Lynch’s article gives an example of a study done by the Secret Service National Threat Assessment Center (NTAC) and Carnegie Mellon University Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) (published in May 2005) that gives details about insider attacks.   This survey gave attention to people who had previously been exposed to internal access to information systems and used them fraudulently.  Ã‚  Ã‚   The report however did not give a variable for the gain of money. The study was based on behavioral and technical viewpoints.   These findings divulged that most of the identity thieves had previously been employees of the companies from which they stole (which goes back to Lynch’s original idea of thinking people within the ‘tribe’ were trustworthy, while people outside of the tribe were not trustworthy), as Lynch states, â€Å"Most involved organizations identified financial losses, negative impacts to their business operations, and damage to their reputation as results of the attacks. The impetus for most attacks was some form of negative work-related event, the most frequently reported motive was revenge, and the attacks were clearly a planned activity† (42-43).   The identity thieves did not follow any profile but were simply employees or former employees of the company. In regards to these attacks Lynch lists several ways in which a company or even a person can secure themselves from identity theft.   The study conducted had employees without real technical experience gaining access to private folders and consumer identities.   Lynch suggests that a layered defense that entails policies, procedures, and technical controls for protection.   Lynch goes on to state that for IT there are specific procedures to follow to aid in preventing identity fraud which include, â€Å"Restrict remote access†¦Restrict system administrator†¦Collect information for all remote logins†¦Monitor failed remote logins†¦Ã¢â‚¬ (44-45). The two main elements that a company of consumer should achieve in order to prevent such attacks include information gathering and analysis.   Although the government on the federal and state level are making new legislations as to how to deal with identity fraud security on one’s own computer is a good way to prevent the attempt of identity theft, as Lynch emphasizes, â€Å"†¦the first step toward this is understanding and acknowledging that we are all subject to the ‘trusted tribe’ mentality and that it is creating blind spots in our planning and implementation† (46).   Thus, the ability to trust people, even those of the ‘tribe’ can be a misleading step in securing protection against identity fraud. Surveys Five people were surveyed for this research paper.   They were asked qualitative questions with a few quantitative questions in order to provide statistics as to the percentage of consumers who had been victims of identity theft.   The demographic for this research was based on male students ages 18-24 who either had or had not been victims of this crime.   Their previous history with identity theft was given as well as their personal thoughts on how to counter identity theft.   Here is a list of the questions the subjects were given to qualitatively answer: Have you ever been the victim of identity theft? Do you know someone who has been a victim of identity theft?   How were you or the person you knew victims of identity theft?   Was the person who committed this crime against you someone you knew?   What precautions do you take to ensure your identity is not stolen?   Do you always take precautions of this kind?   Do you think identity theft is a problem in the Unites States?   Do you think identity theft is a problem on a global scale? Of the five people given this survey three of them had been victims of identity theft.   The ways in which the three people had been victims of identity theft all included stolen credit cards (or in one person’s case, they had become a victim by someone else signing up for the credit card they had thrown away in a public trash can).   In each of these three cases the victims were not in relation or did not know the person who stole their identity. One of the other males surveyed had a relative who had been the victim of identity theft.   His aunt had thrown away credit card acceptance letters and her daughter signed up for the card and charged $5,000 to the card within a month.   The other male surveyed was not a victim of identity theft nor knew of anyone who had been a victim of such a crime. Each respondent knew the ways in which they could secure their identity, especially the three who had already been victims, one of which states, â€Å"A lesson I only needed to learn once†.   Asked how they security methods for ensuring identity theft did occur they listed a tv commercial as to the main reason they knew how to handle their own trash and how to behave in public so that personal information was not divulged to strangers (each surveyed male listed the McGruff, Bite Out of Crime commercials as their main source of knowledge on identity theft and ways in which to prevent it). The one surveyed male said that he always took precautions to ensure that his identity was not stolen; asked what these precautions were he said he owned a paper shredder and never took his garbage out at night but always during the morning right before the trash person was due to arrive.   This surveyed male later told the researchers that he was studying to be a cop and so knew how to properly handle himself in the area of identity theft. The other males listed that they tore up credit card statements after receiving them.   The surveyed male’s aunt who had her daughter steal from her now throws her statements in the fire place (they live in the Northern Territory and so their fireplace is on most of the time). The overall consensus to the question of identity theft being a problem in America all of the males surveyed answered positively.   Asked whether or not they thought identity theft was a problem globally only two answered yes (the male with the relative and the male who was studying to be a police officer).   The rest of the answers for identity theft being a problem globally was answered negatively. While there is no single answer to identity theft, the Federal Trade Commission, the police and also the credit card company itself may be allies to avoid this potential pitfall.   A consumer has the responsibility to report fraudulent charges on their billing statement to ensure that other consumers’ identities are not stolen by the same thief.   A consumer must deter, detect and defend themselves against identity theft by all means stated in the above paper. Bibliography Arar, Yardena.   (December 2006).   Protect Yourself Against Credit Fraud.   PC World. Vol. 24, Issue 12.   pp. 47-52 Lynch, David, M.   (November 2006).   Securing Against Insider Attacks.   Information Systems Security.   Vol. 15 Issue 5, p39-47. Annotated Bibliography Arar, Yardena.   (December 2006).   Protect Yourself Against Credit Fraud.   PC World. Vol. 24, Issue 12.   pp. 47-52 This article focuses on different consumer actions that can be taken as a course of precaution against credit fraud.   Such items as virtual credit cards and buying through PayPal were given as well as a detailed account of securing files on a computer through encryption. Lynch, David, M.   (November 2006).   Securing Against Insider Attacks.   Information Systems Security.   Vol. 15 Issue 5, p39-47. This article provide psychological background to the way in which consumers and companies perceive identity attacks which is dichotomized into the trust tribe, people within the company or in close relation to the consumer and the untrusted tribe, people outside of the company or strangers.   The article also provided a brief study that highlights the demographic of identity thieves and the impetus for their actions. How to cite Identity Theft, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Supply and demand; Market for Milk

Introduction Demand can be defined as the amount of goods or services that the buyers are willing and able to buy in a specific duration of time (Rittenberg, 2008, p. 58). The quantity demanded can be determined by various factors. In most cases, consumer’s choice to consume a particular product is determined by their preferences and tastes for particular products as well as the prices. On the other hand, the quantity supplied is the amount of goods or services that buyers are willing and able to supply in the market in a specific time. In this study, we are considering the market for milk.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Supply and demand; Market for Milk specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Impact on price and quantity of milk of an advertising campaign which highlights scientific studies that finds that drinking milk can help reduce weight gain The main aim for an organization to conduct an advertisement is to increase the level of sales. An advert plays a role of enticing consumers to buy a certain good or service. Advertisement also has a purpose of creating top of mind awareness. This offers a form of branding which attracts customers. An advert informing potential buyers on its significance in weight loss will entice new customers who may not have been consuming milk to switch into milk consumption. This will lead to an increase in the quantity of milk demanded. An advert informing customers on scientific discovery indicating the importance of milk in weight loss may also encourage the existing buyers to increase their levels of consumption. This will also lead to an increase in the level of milk sales. As already seen, an advertisement increases the level of the quantity demanded. With time, the level of demand may exceed the quantity supplied. This will lead to an increase in prices. This is based on the assumption that all other factors are held constant. There are other factor s which affects the quantity demanded for milk. For instance, an increase in the level of households’ income increases the quantity of milk demanded. For instance, an increase in the level of the household’s income in China and the surrounding regions has significantly led to an increase in milk prices (Arnold, not dated, par 4). Prices increases as a result of high demand for milk which is as a result of high household incomes. Impact on price and quantity of milk of a mad cow disease epidemic A mad cow disease has various effects on the milk market. It can lead to a decrease in the level of quantity supplied in the market. The affected animals reduce the level of production. If the disease persists, the level of quantity demanded will exceed the level of quantity supplied. This will lead to rising in milk prices. This is under the assumption that other factors are held constant. Impacts of milk price decrease According to the law of demand, the prices and the quantit y of product demanded are moves in opposite direction. That is, when the prices increase, the quantity demanded decreases. This conclusion is based on the assumption that other factors which affect milk market are held constant. Therefore, a decrease in the prices of milk leads to an increase in the quantity of milk demanded.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Impact on price and quantity of milk by the government decides to implement a price ceiling. A price ceiling is a form of government intervention to protect consumers. Through a price ceiling, a government sets price limits over which the prices of a particular commodity should not exceed. In order for a price ceiling to have any effect to the consumers, it must be set below the market equilibrium. Otherwise it will be ineffective. A price ceiling on the prices of milk will lead to a lower milk price below the market equ ilibrium price. This will lead to an increase in the quantity of milk demanded. Impact of an increase in the prices of a compliment good; cookies Compliment goods are goods which are used in conjunction with each other. Therefore, we expect an increase in level of demand in one of these to induce an increase in the level of demand for the other good. For instance, it is assumed that cookies are used in conjunction with milk. Therefore, a change in demand in one of these will lead to changes in the quantity of milk demanded. Therefore, an increase in prices of cookies leads to an increase in the quantity of milk demanded. Price controls Price control is the attempt by the government to control the prices of goods and services in the market. This is usually aimed at maintaining availability of basic needs to the customers. Advantage Of To Price Controls One of the main advantages is that it maintains the affordability of basic goods and services. For instance, a price ceiling lowers t he prices of milk below the market levels. At lower prices, more people can afford milk and this will maintain a healthy nation.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Supply and demand; Market for Milk specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Disadvantage of price controls There are several drawbacks associated with price controls. Price control leads to shortages. When the government puts demands the producer to provide prices below the market prices, the amount of the product demanded will exceed the quantity supplied in the market. The level of demand increases to the point where supply cannot be kept up. These shortages can lead to black markets as people try to find a solution for shortages (Anonymous, 2008, par 2). Price Elasticity of Demand Elasticity of demand can be defined as the percentage change in the level of quantity demanded of a particular good or service divided by the percentage change in the prices of that particular good or services all other things held constant (Rittenberg, 2008, p. 115). In the case of inelastic goods, consumers are less responsive to changes in prices. In this case, the elasticity of demand is less than one. That is, e1. In the milk market, consumers are less responsive to changes in prices. This is because milk is a basic good. Also, there are no close substitutes for milk. Therefore, the demand for milk is inelastic. Consequently, people may continue to consume milk despite of increase in prices. However, there may be slight changes in quantity demanded. There are several determinants of elasticity of demand. These include the availability of substitutes, time or availability of households’ budget. In the case of milk, there are no close substitutes; therefore the demand is likely to be inelastic. Impact of Milk Prices Increase on the Total Revenue Total revenue is the amount of money received from the sale of goods and services. That is, TR=QP. In the case of elastic demand, any change in price has a significant impact on the quantity demanded. Since the demand for milk is inelastic, changes in price will lead to a small change in the level of revenue. Therefore, the total revenue will change with a small percentage. Reference List Anonymous (2008). Price Controls – Advantages and Disadvantages. Web.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Arnold, A. (n.d.). Thirst for Milk Bred by New Wealth Sends Prices Soaring. Web. Rittenberg, L. (2008). Principles of Microeconomics. New York: Flat World Knowledge. This essay on Supply and demand; Market for Milk was written and submitted by user Bria Odonnell to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

When So Becomes Annoying

When So Becomes Annoying When â€Å"So† Becomes Annoying When â€Å"So† Becomes Annoying By Maeve Maddox The tiny English word so has numerous uses. Merriam-Webster gives it separate entries as adverb, conjunction, adjective, and pronoun. Most of the time, little so goes about its business unnoticed, but one of its functions has been provoking heated discussion on the Web: the use of so as â€Å"a discourse marker.† The term â€Å"discourse marker† was coined in the 1960s to describe â€Å"a word or phrase whose function is to organize discourse into segments and situate a clause, sentence, etc., within a larger context.† Here are some words and phrases commonly used as discourse markers in speech: well you know like now I think you see oh I mean OK actually These are words we all interject into speech for reasons that have nothing to do with grammar. For example: Well, I was a little worried. Now, a clever man would put the poison into his own goblet. You know, not everyone shares your opinion on that. OK, let’s take a vote. I think I’ll go now. These markers serve no grammatical function, but they do advance discourse in various ways. As a discourse marker at the beginning of a sentence, so may do any of the following: initiate discourse So, how was the interview? mark a shift in topic or activity So, what should we do now? begin an explanation So, disconnect the power cord and remove the back panel. preface the response to any question Interviewer: What is the focus of your research? Interview subject: So, I study samples of creek water to track pollution. avoid giving a direct answer Interviewer: Why did you lay off so many workers? Interview subject: So, our sales have been stagnant for some time. The use of so as a sentence-starter has provoked numerous discussions on the Web. Business consultant Hunter Thurman gives three reasons for avoiding the practice of beginning a sentence with so: 1. â€Å"So† insults your audience. 2. â€Å"So undermines your credibility. 3. â€Å"So† demonstrates that you’re not 100% comfortable with what you’re saying. PR consultant Cherry Chapell, on the other hand, sees this use of so as â€Å"a good way of giving yourself time to think.† Linguistics professor Penelope Gardner-Chloros suggests that a speaker who starts an answer with so â€Å"is saying what he wants to say, like a politician- but trying to make it sound like it’s an answer to the question.† Like many linguistic targets of criticism, so as a sentence-starter draws extreme reactions from the general public. I’ve seen comments that question the intelligence of speakers who begin sentences with so and accuse them of defiling the language. I’ve seen other comments that cite the fact that Seamus Heaney translated the opening â€Å"Hwaet† of Beowulf as â€Å"So!† as proof that so must be all right in any context. The reality is that sometimes so is an appropriate sentence-starter, and sometimes it is an irritant. When a speaker habitually begins sentences with so, listeners may react in one of two ways. Some are able to filter out the so’s and concentrate on content. Others, however, are distracted by them and may tune out the content as they count the so’s. When beginning a sentence with so becomes a verbal tic, it has lost its usefulness as a discourse marker. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the General category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:100 Mostly Small But Expressive Interjections"Gratitude" or "Gratefulness"?10 Varieties of Syntax to Improve Your Writing

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Eggplant Domestication History and Genealogy

Eggplant Domestication History and Genealogy Eggplant (Solanum melongena), also known as aubergine or brinjal, is a cultivated crop with a mysterious but well-documented past. Eggplant is a member of the Solanaceae family, which includes its American cousins potatoes, tomatoes, and peppers). But unlike the American Solanaceae domesticates, eggplant is believed to have been domesticated in the Old World, likely India, China, Thailand, Burma or someplace else in southeast Asia. Today there are approximately 15-20 different varieties of eggplant, grown primarily in China. Using Eggplants The first use of eggplant was probably medicinal rather than culinary: its flesh still has a bitter after-taste if it is not treated properly, despite centuries of domestication experimentation. Some of the earliest written evidence for the use of eggplant is from the Charaka and Sushruta Samhitas, Ayurvedic texts written about 100 BC that describe the health benefits of eggplant. The domestication process increased the fruit size and weight of eggplants  and altered the prickliness, flavor, and flesh and peel color, a centuries-long process which is carefully documented in ancient Chinese literature. The earliest domestic relatives of eggplant described in Chinese documents had small, round, green fruits, while todays cultivars feature an incredible range of colors. The prickliness of the wild eggplant is an adaptation to protect itself from herbivores; the domesticated versions have few or no prickles, a trait selected by humans so that we omnivores can pluck them safely. Eggplants Possible Parents The progenitor plant for S. melongena is still under debate. Some scholars pinpoint S. incarnum, a native of North Africa and the Middle East, that developed first as a garden weed and then was selectively grown and developed in southeast Asia. However, DNA sequencing has provided evidence that S. melongena is likely descended from another African plant S. linnaeanum, and that that plant was dispersed throughout the Middle East and into Asia before becoming domesticated. S. linnaeanum produces small, round green-striped fruit. Other scholars suggest that the true progenitor plant has not been identified yet, but was probably located in the savannas of southeast Asia. The real problem in trying to resolve the domestication history of eggplant is that archaeological evidence supporting any eggplant domestication process is lackingevidence for eggplant simply hasnt been found in archaeological contexts, and so researchers must rely on a set of data that includes genetics but also a wealth of historical information. Ancient History of the Eggplant Literary references to eggplant occur in Sanskrit literature, with the oldest direct mention dated from the third century AD; a possible reference may date as early as 300 BC. Multiple references have also been found in the vast Chinese literature, the earliest of which is in the document known as the Tong Yue, written by Wang Bao in 59 BC. Wang writes that the one should separate and transplant eggplant seedlings at the time of the Spring equinox. The Rhapsody on Metropolitan of Shu, 1st century BC-1st century AD, also mentions eggplants. Later Chinese documentation records the specific changes that were deliberately wrought by Chinese agronomists in domesticated eggplants: from round and small green fruit to large and long-necked fruit with a purple peel. Illustrations in Chinese botanical references dated between the 7-19th centuries AD document the alterations in eggplants shape and size; interestingly, the search for a better flavor is also documented in Chinese records, as the Chinese botanists endeavored to remove the bitter flavor in the fruits. Eggplant is believed to have been brought to the attention of the Middle East, Africa and the West by Arabic traders along the Silk Road, beginning around the 6th century AD. However, earlier carvings of eggplants have been found in two regions of the Mediterranean: Iassos (within a garland on a Roman sarcophagus, ​the first half of the 2nd century AD) and Phrygia (a fruit carved on a grave stele, 2nd century AD). Yilmaz and colleagues suggest a few samples may have been brought back from Alexander the Greats expedition to India. Sources DoÄŸanlar, Sami. High resolution map of eggplant (Solanum melongena) reveals extensive chromosome rearrangement in domesticated members of the Solanaceae. Amy FraryMarie-Christine Daunay, Volume 198, Issue 2, SpringerLink, July 2014. Isshiki S, Iwata N, and Khan MMR. 2008. ISSR variations in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and related Solanum species. Scientia Horticulturae 117(3):186-190. Li H, Chen H, Zhuang T, and Chen J. 2010. Analysis of genetic variation in eggplant and related Solanum species using sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers. Scientia Horticulturae 125(1):19-24. Liao Y, Sun B-j, Sun G-w, Liu H-c, Li Z-l, Li Z-x, Wang G-p, and Chen R-y. 2009. AFLP and SCAR Markers Associated with Peel Color in Eggplant (Solanum melongena). Agricultural Sciences in China 8(12):1466-1474. Meyer RS, Whitaker BD, Little DP, Wu S-B, Kennelly EJ, Long C-L, and Litt A. 2015. Parallel reductions in phenolic constituents resulting from the domestication of eggplant. Phytochemistry 115:194-206. Portis E, Barchi L, Toppino L, Lanteri S, Acciarri N, Felicioni N, Fusari F, Barbierato V, Cericola F, Valà ¨ G et al. 2014. QTL Mapping in Eggplant Reveals Clusters of Yield-Related Loci and Orthology with the Tomato Genome. PLoS ONE 9(2):e89499. Wang J-X, Gao T-G, and Knapp S. 2008. Ancient Chinese Literature Reveals Pathways of Eggplant Domestication. Annals of Botany 102(6):891-897. Free download Weese TL, and Bohs L. 2010. Eggplant origins: Out of Africa, into the Orient. Taxon 59:49-56. Yilmaz H, Akkemik U, and Karagoz S. 2013. Identification of plant figures on stone statues and sarcophaguses and their symbols: the Hellenistic and Roman periods of the eastern Mediterranean basin in the Istanbul Archaeology Museum. Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry 13(2):135-145.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Why I want to be a nurse Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Why I want to be a nurse - Essay Example Nurses were looked down upon but with the development of the human mind, it has been realized that it is a very noble profession where a person lives with a cause and purpose of serving other people. It is for this reason that I have actually been influenced by the fact that I should opt for this career and work towards improving the health status of the world by becoming an integral part of the healthcare system. I have always been interested in this field, particularly after my exposure to the hospitals when I came across nurses and realized the fact that how important they are for the field of medicine. My exposure to this field has made me aware of the fact that I would truly want to devote my life for the purpose of providing the best health for the patients. The example of Florence Nightingale serves as an inspiration to me. She was a woman who was devoted to her work despite of the difficulties that she had to face and the criticism that she received. She worked day and night to save precious human lives and worked in very difficult conditions. Seeing her example, I have realized that I would also want to dedicate my life to help people who will actually be able to live in a better way because of my work. The aim of this field is itself very inspiring to me.